Countless churches from the XNUMXth to the XNUMXth centuries, of Mudejar art, in the town of Cuéllar.

Church of San Andrés

The church of San Andrés is located outside the city walls. It has three naves and a transept with three apses, the central one of greater size, decorated on the outside with two blind semicircular arches and windows on an upper floor separated by corner friezes. It is known that it was already built in 1277. The church is decorated with brick and its main front was built on a previous Romanesque one. The door is of half point with archivolts that finish in columns, finished off in its upper part with a frieze also of brick. The façade is crossed by blind semicircular arcades, and on the second floor by another frieze of blind arches separated by brick pillars.

After several restoration works, the paintings of the apses have been discovered, with geometric motifs in red and black tones. The main altarpiece presides San Andrés, around which are distributed paintings of saints. Throughout the church you can see altarpieces, mostly Baroque, which house paintings and carvings of an interesting invoice. Many of these images come from other churches, highlighting the image of the Virgin of Rochela or the Christ of San Gil among others. It has an important collection of images, among which stands out a calvary of primitive Gothic.


Church of San Esteban

In the center of the city rises the Church of San Esteban, declared in 1931 National Artistic Monument. Documented already in 1247, it was the church of los hijosdalgo and where the archive of the "Cofradía de la Cruz" was kept. It is one of the most important Mudejar churches of Cuéllar and it stands out its large brick apse, which on the outside is formed by a straight section and a semicircular, alternating in its decoration friezes of arches with bricks in corner and hollow lintelled.

Its main altarpiece is of neoclassical style with decorative elements of the rococo, in which rest the images of the titular saint and the "Niño de la Bola", in whose honor a procession is celebrated on New Year's Day and another on Kings Day. It also has a Renaissance altarpiece by 1546, which represents in its tables scenes of the life of the Virgin and saints.

THE RESTORATION OF THE CHURCH OF SAN ESTEBAN has been carried out with the patronage of the Historical Heritage Foundation of Castilla y León, the Bishopric of Segovia and the City Council of Cuéllar. Within the rehabilitation of the church include the restoration of the presbytery where there are four Mudejar tombs. In the front part of the arcosolios they stand out for their extraordinary polychrome decoration, with vegetal and geometric forms, the Mudejar plasterwork framed by an alfiz with an inscription in Gothic characters. These remains have been recovered through their chromatic reintegration. Recovering forms and decorations in the parts in which they had disappeared or were very damaged. The Gothic mural paintings of the tombs on the Gospel side, the tombs that rest on lions figures and the recumbent statues of alabaster have also been restored, consolidated and cleaned.

To highlight within the funeral set has been the location of the bodies of seven people, two children and five adults, of which five were mummified and wrapped in shrouds. This important finding has allowed the realization of a very detailed anthropological study in which they have intervened among other specialists archaeologists, doctors, restorers or pathologists from the Universities of Madrid and Valladolid, CSIC and the Center for Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage of Castile and León, who have used the most modern technical means (CT, DNA, electron microscopes) obtaining transcendental testimonies about the tissues used, the identification of the skeletons, the pathologies of the deceased, the grave goods ...; and mainly, the study of the pack of bulls and other writings that appeared between the shroud of Isabel de Zuazo.


The Bulls of Indulgence

In the presbytery there are four ogival sepulchres of the 15th century, adorned with Mudejar arabesques. Inside the sarcophagus that belonged to Isabel de Zuazo has been discovered the burial of Dª Isabel wrapped in a shroud that inside contained two packages with important documentation. The set of documents is made up of a total of 47 indulgence pads, fragments and a book of Hours. Most are Isabel de Zuazo, although there are some of her husband Martín López and two of his four daughters.

Chronology and general characteristics. Bulls are printed in Spanish with a script called "Text Gothic formed"; Most of the bullets are printed on half sheets of sheets of sizes ranging from 268 x 392 mm. and 431 x 307 mm. The antiquity of these documents is very important for the study of the first years of the printing press in Spain, since nine bullae are incunable - that is, before the 1501 year - 13 bulas are post-incunable - between 1501 and 1520 - and the rest would be between the 1521 year and the 1536 year. Being the first bull of the year 1484.



Church of El Salvador

Outside the city walls, in one of its suburbs and in the square of the same name, the Church of El Salvador rises. It is a Mudejar construction of 1299 whose tower is the most slender of Cuellar, presenting in height bent semicircular arches on which runs a frieze of corner. On the outside, the polygonal apse has blind arcades, although its vision is somewhat strange due to the flying buttresses that leave the headboard, raised to hold the later baroque vault. The facade has also been retouched, still retaining elements of the purest Romanesque style. Its interior has also varied, presiding over its High Altar an image of the Virgin of the Palm, gothic carving of the fourteenth century repainted and retouched to dress.


Church of Santa María de la Cuesta

On one of the hillocks that dominate Cuéllar, rises the Romanesque church of Santa María de la Cuesta, from the beginning of the thirteenth century. In addition to the church, in its origins it had a small cloister, a holy field on the right side and a courtyard with pointed arches on the left. The holy field was surrounded by a great wall, partly preserved. According to tradition it would be an old convent of the Templars.

The church houses a baroque altarpiece whose central image is the Immaculate. There are also several works from the Convent of the Trinitarians and the Church of San Sebastian.


Chapel and Hospital of the Magdalena

It was founded by Archdeacon Gomez Gonzalez at 1429 to serve people in need. According to a description of the cleric, the building would be composed of the chapel, with a sacristy to keep the coffers with money and ornaments, and two infirmaries arranged so that they could hear mass from the sick. The cover of the chapel is Gothic, with the shields of the Duke of Alburquerque and the founder and on them, an image of Santa María Magdalena in stone. There is a foundation plate in Hebrew. In the interior, in the central niche of the Baroque altarpiece, the titular head is flanked by San Roque and San Esteban el Joven. Paintings from different eras have also been found on their walls, some of them overlapping.


Church of San Miguel

Located in the Plaza Mayor is the Archpriest Church of San Miguel. The building is fundamentally Gothic, although it has Romanesque, Mudejar and Renaissance elements. The chapels have ribbed vaults and Gothic windows, and according to Fernández de los Ríos, in this church 1395 was the first tower clock in Spain.

The altarpiece of the main altar presides over the Virgen del Rosario, attributed to Pedro Bolduque, patron saint of Cuellar, it is a valuable Baroque work. On a wall of the central nave also houses a painting by Lucas Jordán de la Virgen, San Joaquín and Santa Ana, from the church of El Salvador. There is also a reclining Christ in the church of Gregorio Fernández, as well as other Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo altarpieces, with images that, besides arousing popular fervor, are true works of art.


St. Peter's Church

At the end of the street of San Pedro and closing the walls in its southern part, stands the old Church of San Pedro. Appears in the chronicles in 1095 and was built with a fortress aspect to be the end of the old walls, in one of the most vulnerable parts of the town. It has undergone modifications of its primitive style, being gothic the windows of the tower and the apse, built in stone with enormous arcs that start from the ground. At the top of the oldest part, a semicircular corridor dotted with machicolations and loopholes opens up. The cover is Romanesque, possibly of the primitive construction, and in its interior some vaults of Gothic style are conserved. It was disentailed and used as a flour factory. It is consolidated and is currently a privately owned building. Next to this church stood one of the access doors to the city, the Arco de San Pedro.


Apse of Santiago

Of what was the church of Santiago, at present only its remains are found. Its origin dates back to the middle of the 13th century and was restored in 1988 by the students of the school-workshop. In it, the investiture ceremonies of the Knights of the Order were celebrated and the archive of "The House of the Lineages" is also kept. Only the semicircular apse decorated with two arcades remains, the upper one folded and the arches of the lower one under a lintel. Anthropomorphic burials of earlier dates have been found under its walls.


Church of Santo Tomé

On the Camilo José Cela Avenue, near Convent of the Conception, the Chapel of Santo Tomé rises, that was part of the primitive church, already raised in 1272. Inside, the patron saint of Cuéllar, the Virgin of the Rosary, is venerated, polychrome wooden carving that, although it corresponds to the Romanesque style, the tendency to movement and naturalness makes it cataloged as Gothic and dated in recent years. of the fifteenth century. She is a seated Virgin dressed in a tunic and mantle and covered by a veil that falls on her shoulders. He holds the Child on his knees, who reaches out to take the flower offered to him by the Mother. In one of the walls of the temple appear sepulchres attached with the coats of arms of the families of the Corral and Arellano, Velázquez and Ruiz de Herrera.


Tower of Santa Marina

Towards the interior of the city in the direction of the Plaza de Santa Marina, is the tower of what was the church of the same name. This temple already existed in 1227, although its space is occupied today by a private house attached to the tower, the only example of a complete Mudejar tower that remains standing. The lower part is masonry and the upper part is brick, with double semi-circular windows banked.

In front of the tower and in the Plaza de Santa Marina, there is a stone fountain of Gothic style possibly formed by two Romanesque baptismal fonts to which decorative elements were later added. This fountain was previously in the Plaza Mayor.