Carbonero el Mayor, Segovian town of 2.640 inhabitants, located between the towns of Valladolid and Segovia, is dedicated mainly to the pork industry, agriculture and livestock, also has to its credit an important artistic and cultural heritage.
It is the clear and forceful sign of the vitality of the ancient Land of Segovia and one of the centers that generate culture and experiences in our province. The lands of Carbonero el Mayor have their roots in prehistory. Through these parts of the Tierra de Pinares, the Paleolithic man found food and game, and he recorded a naturalist art on the slates.
Throughout history, the inhabitants of these places have left their artistic imprint that has lasted to this day. It is with the Middle Ages when we began to have evidence of the creation of the current town of Carbonero (Carbonero de Liedos in 1247), belonging to the Community of City and Land of Segovia, within the Sexmo de Cabezas. It is at this time when they begin to build the main artistic remains that today remain and are the pride of its inhabitants.
In the middle of s. XVIII and according to the data collected in the Cadastro de la Ensenada dated 1753, in Carbonero el Mayor highlighted the trades of farmer, baker and pastor, but also had importance the abaceros and arrieros.
The proximity of the pine forests El Mayor and Solilleja y Cafría allowed later, already in the s. XIX, the exploitation of charcoal and resin. Until well into the present century there were tejeras and flour mills and the caleras de Fuentes achieved good reputation.
Craft crafts were represented in the s. XVIII by canvas weavers, manufacturers, carters, potters, blacksmiths, carpenters, slaters, blacksmiths, tailors and shoemakers.
Carbonero, later converted into an alfar center, has been recognized by its potters and potters, such as José Carnicero "Pifo" and Crescenciano Pajares, who has remained active until the mid-1960s.
Segovian embroiderers are maintained, experts in the embroidery of feminine garments, which once symbolized the trousseau of a bride, such as corked shirts (profusely adorned in bibs and cuffs), or waistcoats or fitted jerkins and embroidered in bright colors. For men they also embroider shirts, suits and even sashes and capes. Another artisan, Lorenzo Sancho, known in and out of the province of Segovia, sticks his work to the manufacture of dulzainas with keys, in woods of ebony, boxwood, holm oak, granadillo and palorrosa, and dulzainas without keys, for those who wish to interfere in the learning of this Castilian instrument.
Among others, they stand out: the church of San Juan Bautista dated in the s. XIII, Romanesque brick style with Gothic and Baroque extensions in the s. XV and XVIII.
Also they are to emphasize the rest of the chapels of San Miguel de Quintanas and Santa Águeda, as well as the church of Sources, the Palace of the Seal of s. XV of Elizabethan style, the hermitage of Ntra. Sra. Del Bustar and the source of the Mine.
Special mention deserves the altarpiece of the high altar of the church of San Juan Bautista, the jewel of Carbonero. Painting masterpiece of the first years of the s. XVI, halfway between two different ways of representing reality: the flamenco and the Renaissance. It is a set of twenty-one tables between pilasters, friezes and ornaments of wood finely carved and stewed according to the style of the best Plateresque.
The flamenco, together with the Italian, are reflected in this unique piece of painting and sculpture. The authors are Baltasar Grande and Diego Rosales, surely direct disciples of Ambrosio Benson.
The trails will enter the traveler in natural landscapes of ancestral history. Short tours to enjoy nature and together to extend our walk.
Extensive pine forests, areas of scrubland with oak, fields of cultivation; the traces and greenery traced by the riparian forest of the rivers Eresma and Pirón will be our most faithful companions.
Three well-defined ecosystems, which will make our itineraries an adventure in search of the flora and fauna associated with them. The trills of small birds (chickadees, blue tits, sparrows ...), the silhouette of raptors (alcotanes, kestrels, kites ...) and the fleeting passage of small mammals (foxes, weasels, hares ...) will give a greater incentive to the march. The perennial historical brushstrokes are put by ancient places such as Fuentes de Carbonero and el Temeroso, the ruins of ancient hermitages, Santa Águeda and San Miguel de Quintanas, old mills or the Sanctuary of Ntra. Sra. Del Bustar.
Mayordomos, priostes and commissaries keep up the fervent devotion that Carboneras show for their patron, Ntra. Sra. Del Bustar, a virgin "charcoal, pinariega and pastoral". Votive prayers, processions and an expected pilgrimage take place throughout the Catholic calendar, ceremonies and rituals are sprinkled with melodies, dances, traditional dress and dance. The fervent sons of Carbonero de Liedos, Carbonero la Mayor or Carbonero el Mayor, the name by which the village is now known, have chanted prayers, songs, stories of miracles and favors granted and even a hymn and a sonnet composed in honor of this Marian advocation. Every year, on the Saturday before Pentecost Sunday devotees and enthusiasts gather together at the Shrine of Bustar to celebrate the Pilgrimage, an explosion of jubilation marked by the coexistence of the religious and the profane. A solemn mass, the procession to the fountain of Pozuelo and the auction of the offerings and the banner, in front of the castles of the young men, with dances of strangers and a country picnic with roasted meats, tortillas, watermelons and early melons and wine from harvest.
By September will come the Big Party, the celebration of Ntra. Sra. Del Bustar. Popular religiosity will once again look to the Virgen del Bustal or Bustar to take it in procession, this time around the hermitage. On the profane side, the functions of bullfighters, succeeded in the history of the village by the famous encierros, will attract neighbors and strangers to "see the bull run publicly." Streets and squares will be witnesses, once again, of the comings and goings of the corridors of wild cattle.
Also in good eating, Carbonero preserves its traditions. In full Castilian soil, on the edge of the Sierra de Guadarrama, ham and chorizos slowly mature in the traditional way. As a good land of breads an excellent homemade pastry is made: blinds, buns, fried donuts, fried pork cake and flower bouquets. The most faithful artisan tradition.
The good food is part of this land: its suckling pig, roasted lambs in a wood-fired oven, stone beef, fish soup from the Pirón River, chanterelles and seasonal mushrooms ...
From December to February, pots and pans "go dancing" as it is time to sacrifice the pig. The second meat: mask, tail, feet ... accompany the vegetables, stews and stews in the cold months. The first meats will be ready for the cure and will be tasted in raw, serrano ham and homemade chorizo. February will also bring the flowers of Santa Águeda, a culinary pretext that can be enjoyed at family gatherings.