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Valverde del Majano

Valverde del Majano

Valverde del Majano was born with the repopulation of the Land of Segovia at the end of the 11th century or the beginning of the 12th century. The depopulation of small bordering villages such as Valverdejo, Mazuelos, Sagrameña etc. was composing its current municipal term.

The century of greatest growth was the sixteenth century coinciding with the prosperity and wealth of the city of Segovia, based mainly on the textile industry. Of the little more than a hundred neighbors at the beginning of the century, we reached two hundred and fifty five in 1591. This great growth was due to the manufacture of cloths and the preparation of the wool for the Segovian workshops.

The plague epidemic of 1599, which also affected Valverde, ended in two months with two hundred and seventy-two of its inhabitants. With this epidemic a century is closed and a completely different one to the previous one begins. The seventeenth century was quite hard for this place due to the persistence of poor harvests, which at certain times, happened year after year as in the first of the third decade, which had to resort to the import of wheat from Andalusia to very high prices. Many Valverdans died and many others emigrated. In the sixties after the locust plague, Valverde had just over sixty neighbors.

The recovery comes from the last quarter of the seventeenth century and the middle of the eighteenth century. In the Cadastre of Ensenada we are told that the place has 160 neighbors including widows. By trades there are 37 farmers, 9 pegujareros, 15 wool workers, 17 cardadores and there are 20 bakers, an activity that had already begun in the previous century and that will grow, because in 1811, its number rises to 41. Most of them supply bread to the nearby city of Segovia and the quality of the bread is highly esteemed by the Segovians deserving awards in exhibitions of the early twentieth century.

The decadence of the Segovian textile industry at the beginning of the 19th century also influenced Valverde, some Valverdanos emigrate as happened with Manuel José de Frutos, who ended up in New Zealand while others seek an outlet in the transport and sale of wine that they acquire in Arganda ( Madrid), in Medina del Campo, Rueda or La Seca (Valladolid and continue with the bakery.

Valverde throughout the twentieth century is ruralized more, some muleteers and industrialists change the town for the city and the neighbors who stay will live on agriculture until 1966 is installed next to one of its rivers, the Milanillos, a factory of continuous paper, this will be the beginning because in 1975 in a plenary session of the town hall the attendees are informed that a son of the town, one of the most important industrialists in Spain, Don Nicomedes García Gómez has planned to create an industrial estate in his town. Today an important part of the residents of Valverde, Segovia and nearby towns work in the polygon "Nicomedes García".

MONUMENTS

The most important are the parish church of Our Lady of the Assumption and two chapels of La Soledad and the Virgen de la Aparecida.

The church due to the prosperity of the sixteenth century begins to be built after the beginning of the construction of the Segovian cathedral (1525), and influenced by it the style of the head of the church valverdana and the one of its sacristy, is Gothic. The rest of the building is Renaissance. But the 21 of October of 1897 the building suffers a devastating fire that devastates the craftsmen of the ships, the altarpieces, the organ of Francisco de Ortega, the rostrum, the pulpit and great part of the images. To fill the void after its restoration, three baroque altarpieces were brought from the Dominican convent, disentailed, from San Pedro de las Dueñas (Lastras del Pozo).

The hermitage of La Soledad was saved from ruin in 1840, originally called San Sebastián, it contains the images of the Nazarene, San Juan and the Virgin of Solitude, which were originally in another hermitage named Humilladero.

The hermitage of La Virgen de la Aparecida is located about five kilometers from the town center, was originally the church of the depopulated Mazuelos and had the name of hermitage of Magdalena. In 1623, doing some works in the cemetery attached to the hermitage, a Romanesque carving was found inside a sarcophagus that was given the name of the Virgin of the Sepulcher first, and later of the Aparecida. At the end of the XVII century a new hermitage was built, in 1802 another one is built on it and finally the current one that is of 1959. The altarpiece is baroque of the 17th century and the image of the Virgin had to be made new when the primitive was burned, in the fire of the 1897 church. The current one is a dress image whose author is Mr. Andrés Sanz Hernando Segovia sculptor who had already carved the float years before.

PARTIES

The bosses are the virgin of the Assumption in the middle of August, which is preceded by the cultural week in which all kinds of cultural and sports activities are performed and those of the Virgen de la Aparecida the first in June with parade of floats, costumes, pilgrimage with traditional dances, orchestras etc. In September around the 16 day, the date on which the coronation of this Virgin is commemorated, another pilgrimage is celebrated with an offering of flowers, a popular food, a procession with dances and a final drink.

There are other religious celebrations such as Santa Águeda, celebrated in February by women with religious acts but also with meals, dances, costumes ... and there are other festivals of brotherhoods like San José or San Antonio.

The main profane festival is that of the Carnivals and fifths, which are young people who turn eighteen, and which is also celebrated in the month of February.

CHARACTERS ILUSTRES OF THE PEOPLE

FRANCISCO GARCÍA AYUSO

He was born in Valverde del Majano in 1845. He studied Humanities at the Seminary of Segovia, and expanded his studies, in Morocco, in the monastery of El Escorial and in Munich, with some of the best professors of the moment.

He had a great facility for languages, becoming the greatest expert in Semitic languages. Some scholars, even today, consider that if the 1870 decade knows an authentic flowering of studies of Indo-European linguistics in Spain, it is due to the only person who deserves the name of Indo-European and that is none other than Francisco García Ayuso.

Among the languages ​​he masters are: French, Italian, Portuguese, German, Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, Avestan, Persian, Assyrian, Ethiopian ... and he was among the few Spaniards in reading the cuneiform script.

He was also one of the best European Orientalists, always relying on sources, some of the books on this subject, such as Afghanistan, are still current.

In addition to professor and writer, in 1894 he was appointed academic of the Royal Academy of the Language in which he occupied the chair U (capital letter), remaining in it until May of 1897 when he dies.

LORENZOR GARCÍA HUERTA

Lorenzo García Huerta was born the 10 of August of 1844 in Valverde del Majano. He entered as a missionary of the Heart of Mary, ordained a priest in 1888. He dedicates his time to teaching and writing by sending some of his works to Segovian newspapers such as El Adelantado.

The death of his father and the financial needs of the family, forced him to exclaustrarse moving to Madrid where he remains until his death in 1910, being present body came the news of his appointment as Bishop of Almeria.

As a writer, he calls himself "El Cantor de Guadarrama" and said that until another one with more merits arose, "I want to call myself the Segovian Regionalist poet".

He obtained numerous prizes as a poet and author: in a literary contest in Lleida he was awarded a margarita, a silver zither and a writing desk. Another award was granted by the Economic Society of Friends of the Country for some legends in verse entitled "The horse of the count" and "The rich man of Torredondo.

Other legends of his were: La toque de la Fuencisla, La niña muerta ... he also wrote dramas, zarzuelas etc.

AGAPITO MARAZUELA ALBORNOS

Agapito Marazuela is born in Valverde del Majano on November 20 day of 1891 in a very humble family, his parents Niceto Marazuela and Segunda Albornos, lacking land, live on the arrieros with the help of a male and a car. Very soon the little Agapito will accompany his father on these trips and will begin to know the first musical notes left by the guitar and bandurria of his father.

A seven-year-old meningitis affects her eyes, transforming the life of the child who will not be able to follow the father's job and will leave serious consequences for his whole life. With this you lose a muleteer or innkeeper, but you will win a great musician. Being a child in Valverde you can hear the sound of the dulzaina that accompanied the neighbors in parties, weddings, shears and in any other meeting or celebration and begins to get the first notes of an old keyless doll that is the first one you buy his family. In 1903 he moved to Valladolid where he received lessons in natural Velasco's dulzaina from Renedo (Valladolid) and he bought the first one with keys that Velasco himself manufactured. His disciple, but in this case drummer, was another Valverdano, Mariano Llorente "Marianete", with whom he will play many times, such as at the wedding of Ambrosio Palomo and Juliana del Real neighbors of Valverde or at the party of San Bartolomé de Torredondo .

The touches through the towns and villages will put you in touch with people who still know old tunes, romances and songs that he will pick up in his memory and will serve him later to win the first prize of the 1932 National Folk Music Contest with the Cancionero de Castilla la Vieja. Also a group of Valverdanos, beginning with their parents, helped him to compose this great work.

In 1906 the family of Agapito leaves Valverde and moves to the Arévalo road, leasing the Somorrostro ventorro. Her stay in Segovia will allow her to learn solfege and begin studying the guitar, which will be her great passion, she will dedicate many days and many hours to it and with it she becomes one of the greatest Spanish guitarists of the moment, playing in places like the Ateneo de Madrid.

The war changes his life and his brilliant career, his ideology places him on the side of the losers and at the end of the war he will have to spend several years in prison and in exile and for two decades he is forced to resort to classes for survive From 1964 the recognition begins, this year the Provincial Headquarters of the Movement publishes the Segoviano Songbook.

In 1965 the City Council of Segovia grants him the Silver Medal of the City, but until February 1978 does not deliver it. In 1969, the Association of Friends of Segovia grants him the Alcázar de Oro. In 1971, when he turns eighty, a group of Segovian intellectuals offers him a tribute in Valverde by placing a plaque in his home, on Calle Monseñor Ayuso, precisely He has this street, the name of a carnal cousin of his, Don Teófilo Ayuso Marazuela. In 1972 is elected member of the Spanish Association of Ethnology and Folklore of the Higher Council of Scientific Research. In 1978 is named by the Royal Academy of History and Art of San Quirce academic of merit. This year he receives the Gold Medal of the Province of Segovia, debuting the documentary with this motive Agapito Marazuela and Castilian folklore directed by Miguel Velasco and made by José Mª Heredero. Also this year his name is given to a street in Segovia.

Many recognitions but also very scarce economic resources to be able to live in a humble pension of José Zorrilla street taken from their classes in a small place given by the Savings Bank and maintained with the help that the City of Segovia passed monthly to meet the local of the Chair of folklore.

His death took place in Segovia on February 24 1983. This year, on the proposal of the Minister of Culture, the King grants him the Gold Medal for Merit of the Fine Arts posthumously. Nineteen years after his death, the sculpture of Maestro Agapito, the work of the sculptor José María Moro, was placed in the Socorro Square.

NICOMEDES GARCÍA GÓMEZ

"I was born in Valverde del Majano on January 8th of 1901, in a very humble home. My father was engaged in carrying wine from Arganda ", thus begins one of the many interviews he did throughout his hazardous life. His death takes place on the nineteenth of April of 1989.

As a child he showed great intelligence and a great desire to become someone important, he said: "the teacher of my town put me the problems of the older boys and was amazed to see that I could solve them without any difficulty."

He eventually became the most important industrialist in the province of Segovia, and in 1972, the newspaper ABC considered him one of the twelve "Businessmen of Spain".

He founded Anís la Castellana, the company of Auto Res, the shipping company Nicomedes García, the advertising agency Azor, was during the war the largest manufacturer of nougat, and owned several banks. One of the best known companies in Nicomedes was the Dyc whiskey distillery.

His dedication gave him many prizes and distinctions such as being named a favorite son of this town, the dedication of a street, the conversion of his house in the archive-museum or the awarding of the Gold Medal for Merit in the Workplace. This award was perhaps, among all, the most esteemed by him, perhaps because he loved the work, and claimed that this was "not a divine curse, because work had always been for him, source of satisfaction" and that Although he had been working since he was a child.

Valverde residents are very grateful for being as it was and because among other things we left the Industrial Estate that bears his name, and thanks to him, work and prosperity for our people.

MANUEL DE FRUTOS HUERTA

The 31 day of January of 1811 was born in the house of his maternal grandparents, in the Plaza de Juan Díez a child whose parents gave him the name of Manuel. In Valverde at that time, he used to put behind his name that of his father, as if it were the first surname, so he will be known as Manuel José de Frutos Huerta.

His family worked in the preparation of wool to then make cloths in Segovia and Valverde. But at the beginning of the 19th century this activity collapsed, this, together with years of bad harvests, caused Manuel José to leave Spain around 1835, going to the antipodes, to New Zealand, where he arrived in a whaling boat. There he formed a large family, which, after yearning to find the place where his beloved ancestor was born, sought us out to find us.

The Maori tribe of the Paniora (Spaniards in the Maori language) to which they belong, value their ancestors above all and for them to know their Valverdanos relatives was one of the greatest joys they had when arriving in Valverde. During Christmas 2010, the twinning between the New Zealand city of Gisborne and Valverde del Majano took place.

Today besides the inhabitants of Valverde close to the one thousand one hundred there are other descendants of a Valverdano in New Zealand and distributed throughout the world until reaching a figure that is calculated around the 16000.

TEÓFILO AYUSO MARAZUELA

Born in Valverde on March 6, 1906, as in the previous cases, from a very humble family. Lacking land their parents were potters, acquiring the goods in Portillo that they sold in Valverde and the surrounding towns or they exchanged for scrap metal. Little Theophilus sometimes accompanied his father and entertained himself by reading. His love for books was then manifested to the point that his grandfather to see him said "You pass the way reading or you would be a bishop."

In September, 1918 enters the seminar in Segovia obtaining the highest grades for all courses. At 1925 he was appointed to go to study in Rome as a fellow. Already in Rome he began to take an interest in the study of Sacred Scripture, a discipline in which Don Teófilo stood out worldwide.

In 1930 he was ordained a priest and will continue in Rome with a scholarship from Pope Pius XI obtained thanks to his merits to continue studies on Sacred Scripture. When he returns to Segovia in 1932, he is a Bachelor of Canon Law, Doctor of Philosophy and Bachelor and candidate proposed "ad Lauream" in Sacred Scripture and masters ten languages.

In 1938, an opposition is presented to the canon of the Seo de Zaragoza. From that moment on he will live in Zaragoza and will dedicate himself to biblical research, teaching and giving lectures in Spain and abroad. In 1947 he was invited to join as an "honorary member in the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis" of the United States, being the first Spanish member of this group.

Throughout his short life he won important awards such as Francisco Franco for his great work of research and textual criticism in eight volumes called "Vetus Latina Hispana". In 1951 he was named Domestic Prelate of His Holiness, honor by which from now on he will be known as Monsignor Ayuso. In 1954 was awarded the gold medal of the city of Zaragoza. In 1956 he receives the Juan March award to the Sacred Letters, his people Valverde del Majano distinguishes him with the appointment of Favorite Son, placing a plaque in the house of his birth and giving his name to a street. The city of Segovia grants him the gold medal and the Diputación the title of favorite son of the province.

In 1960 he was named corresponding Academician of the Royal Academy of History.

The 18 of September of 1962 passes away in the city of Zaragoza.

FEATURED FACTS

Stay of Doña Ana from Austria

The 11 of November of 1570, Doña Ana de Austria promised of the king Felipe II, when it went to Segovia to contract marriage with the monarch, spent the night in Valverde, where the neighbors, according to the tradition that used in the place "espigaron" to the Queen offering her gifts and entertained her stay with songs and dances. The next day the delegation went to the city and its Alcázar where the ceremony took place.

Stay of Felipe II

On the march to Tarazona in June of 1592 Felipe II, like his wife, spent the night in this place. His chronicler Enry Cock describes us to the village of Valverde del Majano: "it is a village in Segovia, with three hundred neighbors, distant from the city of one and a half. The neighbors of this place, boys and grown-ups, all understand how to spin ordinary wool and many others from this region, which is worked in Segovia for cloths and raxas. It has a good church whose parish is worth up to a thousand ducats of income each year. "